eisenhower was born david dwight eisenhower, and raised in abilene, kansas, in a large family of mostly pennsylvania dutch ancestry. his family had a strong religious background. his mother became a jehovah's witness. eisenhower, however, did not belong to any organized church until 1952. he graduated from west point in 1915 and later married mamie doud, with whom he had two sons. during world war i, he was denied a request to serve in europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews. following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. after the united states entered world war ii, eisenhower oversaw the invasions of north africa and sicily before supervising the invasions of france and germany. after the war, he served as army chief of staff (1945–1948), as president of columbia university (1948–1953) and as the first supreme commander of nato (1951–1952).

in 1952, eisenhower entered the presidential race as a republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of senator robert a. taft; taft opposed nato and wanted no foreign entanglements. eisenhower won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating adlai stevenson ii. eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the spread of communism and reduce federal deficits. in 1953, he threatened to use nuclear weapons until china agreed to peace terms in the korean war.[disputed – discuss] china did agree and an armistice resulted which remains in effect. his new look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive army divisions. he continued harry s. truman's policy of recognizing taiwan as the legitimate government of china, and he won congressional approval of the formosa resolution. his administration provided major aid to help the french fight off vietnamese communists in the first indochina war. after the french left, he gave strong financial support to the new state of south vietnam. he supported regime-changing military coups in iran and guatemala orchestrated by his own administration. during the suez crisis of 1956, he condemned the israeli, british, and french invasion of egypt, and he forced them to withdraw. he also condemned the soviet invasion during the hungarian revolution of 1956 but took no action. after the soviet union launched sputnik in 1957, eisenhower authorized the establishment of nasa, which led to the space race. he deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 lebanon crisis. near the end of his term, he failed to set up a summit meeting with the soviets when a u.s. spy plane was shot down over the soviet union. he approved the bay of pigs invasion, which was left to john f. kennedy to carry out.